Lesion or condition

  • current or recent gastrointestinal ulceration,
  • malignant neoplasms at high risk of bleeding,
  • recent brain or spinal injury,
  • recent brain or spinal or ophthalmic surgery,
  • recent intracranial haemorrhage,
  • known or suspected oesophageal varices,
  • arteriovenous malformations (excluding AV fistula or AV graft for dialysis vascular access),
  • vascular aneurysms or major intraspinal or intracerebral vascular abnormalities,
  • bronchiectasis or pulmonary bleeding,
  • any congenital or acquired bleeding disorder.  
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